13th Amendment Citation List

The 13th Amendment: Fixing the Framers’ Failure

By Robert J. McWhirter

Published in two parts in Arizona Attorney Magazine, February and June 2019

Primary Sources:


  • Ableman v. Booth (1859)
  • Blyew v. United States (1871)
  • Civil Rights Cases (1883)
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
  • Hodges v. United States (1906)
  • Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co. (1968)
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1810)
  • Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842)
  • Somerset v Stewart (1772)
  • United States v. Cruikshank (1874)
  • United States v. Schooner Amistad (1841)


  • Barbados Slave Code of 1661.
  • John C. Calhoun, The South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828).
  • Emancipation Proclamation (Jan. 1, 1863).
  • James Madison, Convention Notes (Aug. 21, 1787).
  • Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address (Mar. 4, 1865).
  • Abraham Lincoln, Seventh and Last Debate with Stephen A. Douglas at Alton, Illinois (October 15, 1858). 
  • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863).
  • Benjamin Rush, Letter to Granville Sharp (May 13, 1774).
  • South Carolina Slave Code of 1696.


  • 12 Years a Slave (Fox Searchlight Pictures 2012).
  • 13th (Kandoo Films 2016).
  • Cool Hand Luke, (Warner Bros.-Seven Arts 1967).
  • Django Unchained (Columbia Pictures 2012).
  • Glory (Tri-Star Pictures 1989).
  • The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (2012).
  • The Outlaw Josey Wales (Warner Brothers 1976).

Articles & Books (By Author’s Last Name):

Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts (1943).

H. Robert Baker, The Fugitive Slave Clause and the Antebellum Constitution, 30 Law & Hist. Rev. 1133, 1134 (2012). 

Yanessa L. Barnard, Better Late Than Never: A Takings Clause Solution to Reparations, 12 Wash. & Lee J. Civ. Rts. & Soc. Just. 109 (2005).

Randy E. Barnett, The Continuing Relevance of The Original Meaning of The Thirteenth Amendment, 15 Geo. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 1, 2 (2017).

Roger D. Billings, Jr., Abraham Lincoln And the Duty of Zealous Representation: The Matson Slave Case, 14 Conn. Pub. Int. L.J. 179 (2015).  

Alfred W. Blumrosen & Ruth G. Blumrosen, Slave Nation: How Slavery United the Colonies & Sparked the American Revolution (2005).

Alfred L. Brophy, The Road to The Gettysburg Address, 43 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 831, 891 (2016).

Burrus M. Carnahan, Act of Justice: Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and the Law of War (2008) reviewed by Robert Fabrikant, Lincoln, Emancipation, And “Military Necessity, 52 How. L. J. 375 (2009).   

Lisa Sewell DeMoss, HealthCare Reform and States’ Rights: Did We Learn Anything from The Civil War? 34 St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 259, 274 (2015);

Frederick Douglas, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1881).

Stanley G. Feldman & David L. Abney, The Double Security of Federalism: Protecting Individual Liberty Under the Arizona Constitution, 20 Ariz. St. L.J. 115 (1988).

Paul Finkelman, Frederick Douglass’s Constitution: From Garrisonian Abolitionist to Lincoln Republican, 81 Mo. L. Rev. 1, 8 (2016). 

Paul Finkelman, How the Proslavery Constitution Led to The Civil War, 43 Rutgers L.J. 405, 410 (2013). 

Paul Finkelman, Lincoln, Emancipation, and the Limits of Constitutional Change, 2008 Sup. Ct. Rev. 349, 387 (2008). 

Eric Foner, Abraham Lincoln, The Thirteenth Amendment, And the Problem of Freedom,15 Geo. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 59 (2017).     

Thomas Ruffin Gray, The Confessions of Nat Turner: The Leader of the Late Insurrection in Southampton, Virginia.  (1831).

Robert Hendrickson, QPB Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins 554 (2nd ed. 2004). 

Maeve Herbert Glass, Bringing Back the States: A Congressional Perspective on The Fall of Slavery in America, 39 Law & Soc. Inquiry 1028, 1051-52 (2014). 

Taja-Nia Y. Henderson, The Ironic Promise of The Thirteenth Amendment for Offender Anti-Discrimination Law, 17 Lewis & Clark L. Rev. 1141, 1175-77 (2013). 

Williamjames Hull Hoffer, North V. South: A Legal History of The Caning of Charles Sumner, 43 Rutgers L.J. 515, 516-17 (2013). 

David B. Kopel, Lyman Trumbull: Author of the Thirteenth Amendment, Author of the Civil Rights Act, and the First Second Amendment Lawyer, 47 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 1117, 1143-49 (2016).

John Locke, An Essay Concerning the True Original, Extent and End of Civil Government, in The World’s Great Thinkers, Man and the State: The Political Philosophers 69 (1947). 

Matthew J. Mancini, One Dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the South, 1866-1928 (1996);

Joseph W. Mark, United States v. Hatch: The Significance of The Thirteenth Amendment in Contemporary American Jurisprudence, 91 Denv. U. L. Rev. 693, 696-97 (2014).   

Jared McClain, An Analysis of Charles Pinckney’s Contributions at The Constitutional Convention Of 1787, 24 J. S. Legal Hist. 1, 16 (2016). 

Jessica McCann, All Different Kinds of Free (2011).

Jon Meacham, American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House 58 (2009).  

Forrest A. Nabors, How the Antislavery Constitution Won the Civil War, 10 N.Y.U. J. L. & Liberty 346, 396 (2016).  

Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave (1853).

James Oakes, Making Freedom National: Salmon P. Chase and The Abolition of Slavery, 13 Geo. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 407, 409 (2015). 

James Oakes, “The Only Effectual Way”: The Congressional Origins of The Thirteenth Amendment, 15 Geo. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 115, 131-32 (2017). 

Stephen B. Oates, With Malice Toward None: A Life of Abraham Lincoln  411-12 (1977). 

Michael P. O’Connor, Time Out of Mind: Our Collective Amnesia about the History of the Privileges or Immunities Clause, 93 Kentucky L. J. 659, 734 (2004–2005).

James Oliver Horton & Lois E. Horton, Slavery and the Making of America (2005).

David Oschinsky, Worse than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice (1996).

Dianne Post, The Amazing Saga of Joshua Glover, the Fugitive Slave Act, the Republican Party and the Civil War, http://readersupportednews.org/pm-section/31-31/30323-the-amazing-saga-of-joshua-glover-the-fugitive-slave-act-the-republican-party-and-the-civil-war (last visited August 5, 2017). 

Jack Rakove, Book Review: A Biography Of Madison’s Notes Of Debates Madison’s Hand: Revising The Constitutional Convention. By Mary Sarah Bilder, 31 Const. Comment. 317, 324 (2016). 

Sandra L. Rierson, The Thirteenth Amendment as A Model for Revolution, 35 Vt. L. Rev. 765, 777 (Summer 2011). 

Caitlin Rosenthal, Accounting for Slavery: Masters and Management (2018)

Susan Schulten, Visualizing Slavery, December 10, 2010 at https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/12/09/visualizing-slavery/ (Last visited February 4, 2018).

John S. Skilton, Abraham Lincoln: A Lawyer “For the Ages”: From the Prairie to The Presidency-And Beyond, 2011 Wis. L. Rev. 1, 25 (2011).   

Symposium, Dred Scott After 150 Years: A Grievous Wound Remembered, 17 Widener L. J. 1 (2007). 

Samuel M. Strongin, When Thirteen Is (Still) Greater Than Fourteen: The Continued Expansive Scope of Congressional Authority Under the Thirteenth Amendment in A Post-City of Boerne v. Flores World, 102 Va. L. Rev. 501 (2016).

William Styron, The Confessions of Nat Turner (1967).   

Alexander Tsesis, Undermining Inalienable Rights: From Dred Scott To the Rehnquist Court, 39 Ariz. St. L.J. 1179, 1188-89 (2007).

Amanda Tillotson, Race, Risk and Real Estate: The Federal Housing Administration and Black Homeownership in The Post World War II Home Ownership State, 8 DePaul J. for Soc. Just. 25 (2014). 

David R. Upham, The Understanding Of “Neither Slavery nor Involuntary Servitude Shall Exist” Before the Thirteenth Amendment, 15 Geo. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 137, 138-40 (2017).

Lea VanderVelde, Henry Wilson: Cobbler of The Frayed Constitution, Strategist of The Thirteenth Amendment, 15 Geo. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 173 175-76 (2017).

Peter Wallenstein, Slavery Under the Thirteenth Amendment: Race And The Law Of Crime And Punishment In The Post-Civil War South, 77 La. L. Rev. 1, 16 (2016). 

Derek A. Webb, The Somerset Effect: Parsing Lord Mansfield’s Words on Slavery in Nineteenth Century America, 32 Law & Hist. Rev. 455, 481 (2014).

G. Edward White, The Origins of Civil Rights in America, 64 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 755, 772 (2014).

John C. Williams, Slave Contracts and the Thirteenth Amendment, 39 Seattle U. L. Rev. 1009, 1010 (2016).

Garry Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America (1992).

Garry Wills, Lincoln’s Greatest Speech? The Atlantic Monthly, September 1999, http://www.theatlantic.com/past/issues/99sep/9909lincoln.htm. 

Shadman Zaman, Violence and Exclusion: Felon Disenfranchisement as A Badge of Slavery, 46, 251-52 Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 233, 235 (2015).

Rebecca E. Zietlow, James Ashley, The Great Strategist of The Thirteenth Amendment 15 Geo. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 265 (2017). 

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