State Bar of Arizona Ethics Opinions
97-04: Computer Technology; Internet; Advertising and Solicitation; Confidentiality
This opinion discusses several ethical issues with respect to lawyers using the Internet to communicate including, for example, confidentiality concerns when sending email to a client, advertising considerations for websites and the applicability of Arizona's Rules of Professional Conduct to communications disseminated from or received in Arizona [ERs 1.6, 1.7, 5.5, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5]
The State Bar of Arizona's Committee on the Rules of Professional Conduct has received several inquiries from Bar members with respect to lawyers using the Internet. Those inquiries have included questions about law firm web sites, communicating with clients via "e-mail", and engaging in legal discussions with unknown members of the public through on-line "chat groups". In an effort to assist Arizona Bar members in determining their ethical obligations in cyberspace, this Opinion addresses a variety of ethics questions pertaining to computerized legal communications. This opinion does not purport, however, to address all of the ethical issues associated with lawyers using the Internet.
RELEVANT ETHICAL RULES
ER 1.6 Confidentiality of Information
ER 1.7 Conflict of Interest: General Rule
ER 5.5 Unauthorized Practice of Law
ER 7.1 Communications and Advertising Concerning
a Lawyer's Services
ER 7.2 Legal Service Information
ER 7.3 Direct Contact with Prospective Clients
ER 7.4 Communication of Fields of Practice
ER 7.5 Firm Names and Letterheads
RELEVANT PRIOR OPINIONS
Arizona Op. 95-11 (Dec. 6, 1995)
Several other state ethics committees have issued ethics opinions on use of computerized communications by lawyers. The most recent ethics opinions from other jurisdictions regarding ethics and the Internet are:
IL. Op. 92-23 (computer referral system)
IA. Op. 96-01 (firm web sites)
MI. Op. RI-276 (direct solicitation)
NC. Ops. 239, 241 (web sites & directories)
NE. Op. 95-3 (internet referral service)
OR. Op. 94-137 (on-line legal info.)
PA. Op. 96-17 (internet)
SC. Op. 94-27 (on-line office)
TN. Op. 95-A-576 (unpublished)(e-mail)
These opinions, for the most part, conclude that attorney ethical rules do apply to attorney communications via the Internet. Florida and Texas also have issued guidelines, through their Advertising Committees, which confirm that lawyer solicitation via the Internet is subject to each state's ethical rules on lawyer advertising. Tennessee has forged the next step and adopted a specific ethical rule that defines "solicit" and "written communication" as including "computer on-line transmission". Tenn. Code of Prof. Res., DR 2-104 (adopted 3/15/96).
The American Bar Association has not yet issued a formal opinion on use of the Internet by lawyers.
The following are the ethical issues most frequently presented to the State Bar of Arizona's Committee on the Rules of Professional Conduct on lawyers using computerized communications:
1. Is a firm "web site" considered a "communication" about a lawyer that would be subject to the ethics rules?
Yes. A lawyer's web site is a "communication" about the lawyer or the lawyer's
services that is subject to the ethics rules. Thus, all of the ethical requirements set
forth in Rules 7.1 through 7.5 apply to such communications. Specifically, lawyers
should review the requirements of the general advertising rule, ER 7.1, which includes
the general premise that lawyer communications should be predominantly informational
(ER 7.1(b)). ER 7.1 also includes some obscure requirements, such as: 1) a
communication must include the cities where the lawyer has offices and/or will actually
perform the work; 2) a copy of the communication must be maintained for three years;
and 3) communications that include a factual statement must be able to be
substantiated. Communications and advertising about a lawyer's services shall not be
false or misleading, as required by ER 7.1(a). Other general considerations when
deciding what information may be on a law firm web site are: 1) the information should
not create an unjustified expectation; 2) fee information must comply with ER 7.1(e);
3) if a firm wants to list some of its existing clients and/or include an endorsement
from an existing client, the firm must obtain the clients' consents prior to including
their identities in the web site; and 4) if the site provides links to other firms' sites,
there should be clear explanations as to whether or not the firms are affiliated (as
required by ER 7.1(p)).
2. If a law firm has offices in many states, must the firm comply with Arizona ethics rules if the firm either has an office in Arizona or attorneys admitted to practice in Arizona?
Yes. Pursuant to ER 8.5, if you are a member of the State Bar of Arizona, you must
follow the Arizona Model Rules of Professional Conduct, even if your advertisement will
appear, electronically, both inside and outside of the state.
3. Can a "web site" use a tradename as the law firm name?
No. ER 7.5 prohibits the use of tradenames for law firms. Domain names, however,
are not firm names and thus are not subject to this limitation.
4. Can a lawyer mention either in a web site or simply in responding to a question in a "chat room" that he or she specializes in water law?
No. Lawyers may only state that they "specialize" in an area of practice if they are so
certified by the State Bar of Arizona's Board of Legal Specialization or otherwise
authorized, pursuant to ER 7.4. Water law is not an area that is certified as a
5. Is it a violation of ER 7.3 to contact a prospective client directly via e-mail if you know that the person needs legal representation for a particular matter?
Maybe, unless the lawyer complies with the requirements set forth in ER 7.3. ER 7.3
prohibits telephone and in-person solicitation. Communication with a potential client
via cyberspace should not be considered either a prohibited telephone or in-person
contact because there is not the same element of confrontation/immediacy as with
the prohibited mediums. A potential client reading his or her e-mail, or even
participating in a "chat room" has the option of not responding to unwanted
ER 7.3 might still apply, however, to certain computerized solicitations. That Rule
requires certain disclosures in written communications, initiated by a lawyer, to
persons "known to need legal services of the kind provided by the lawyer in a
particular matter." ER 7.3(b)(emphasis added). In order for this portion of ER 7.3 to
apply to a computerized solicitation, the following elements would be necessary:
1) the lawyer must initiate the contact (thus, lawyer responses to questions posed by potential clients in "chat rooms" or inquiries sent directly to a particular lawyer would not need to comply with this rule); and
2) the potential client would have to have a known legal need for a particular matter. Thus, for instance, solicitations sent to all members of an environmental listserve would not be affected because those members might be interested in environmental issues but not necessarily have a need for representation in a particular environmental case.
If those elements exist, then the lawyer must comply with the disclosure obligations
set forth in ER 7.3(b). Part of that disclosure obligation requires that such written
"be clearly marked on the envelope and on the first page of the communication contained in the envelope as follows: ADVERTISING MATERIAL: THIS IS A COMMERCIAL SOLICITATION. Said notification shall be printed in red ink, in all capital letters, in type size at least double the largest type size used in the body of the communication."
These requirements pose a slight application dilemma for electronically transmitted
solicitations; how will an attorney mark an e-mail envelope and contents with the
requisite disclaimer - in red ink? If technologically feasible, lawyers should make
reasonable efforts to comply with this requirement and send a copy of their
communications, as required by ER 7.3(c), to the Clerk of the Supreme Court and the
State Bar. Absent further clarification of these requirements by the Arizona Supreme
Court, this Committee suggests that practitioners, at a minimum, include the disclaimer
language in all capital letters on the e-mail "subject" line and in the body of the
6. Should lawyers answer specific legal questions posed in "chat rooms" or "news groups"?
Probably not because of both the inability to screen for a potential conflict with an
existing client (in violation of ER 1.7) and the possibility of disclosing confidential
information (in violation of ER 1.6). In Formal Opinions 87-23 and 92-10, which pertain
to lawyers giving legal seminars to lay people, one of the guidelines suggested by this
Committee was that lawyers should not answer specific legal questions from the
audience. Ethically, it would follow that lawyers should not answer specific legal
questions from lay people through the Internet unless the question presented is of a
general nature and the advice given is not fact-specific.
Lawyers may, however, provide articles or newsletters to individuals on the Internet or
in their web sites, just as lawyers currently may disseminate general information on
particular legal topics through firm white papers and brochures.
7. May a lawyer join an on-line lawyer referral service?
Probably not unless the service is in compliance with ER 7.1(r)(3), which requires
that the referral service be "operated, sponsored, or approved by a bar association".
At present that would require approval by the State Bar of Arizona. There are no on-
line referral services currently approved by the State Bar.
8. Should lawyers communicate with existing clients, via e-mail, about confidential matters?
Maybe. Lawyers may want to have the e-mail encrypted with a password known only
to the lawyer and the client so that there is no inadvertent disclosure of confidential
information. Alternatively, there is encryption software available to secure
transmissions. E-mail should not be considered a "sealed" mode of transmission. See
American Civil Liberties Union v. Reno, 929 F.Supp. 824, 834 (E.D.Pa 1996). At a
minimum, e-mail transmissions to clients should include a cautionary statement either
in the "re" line or beginning of the communication, indicating that the transmission is
"confidential" "Attorney/Client Privileged", similar to the cautionary language currently
used on facsimile transmittals. Lawyers also may want to caution clients about
transmitting highly sensitive information via e-mail if the e-mail is not encrypted or
otherwise secure from unwanted interception. One state ethics opinion went so far as
to require that lawyers obtain a written consent from clients before transmitting
sensitive information via e-mail. Iowa Supreme Court Board of Professional Ethics and
Conduct Op. 96-01 (8/29/96). Such a written waiver, according to the Opinion, must
disclose the risks associated with e-mail.
These recommendations are consistent with this Committee's prior Formal Op. 95-11
regarding use of cellular phones by lawyers. In that Opinion, the Committee cautioned
lawyers against discussing sensitive information via a cellular phone even though the
interception of such a conversation would be illegal. The Opinion stated, however,
that it is not unethical for a lawyer to communicate with a client via cellular phone.
Similarly with e-mail, it is not unethical to communicate with a client via e-mail even if
the e-mail is not encrypted; this Committee simply suggests that it is preferable to
protect the attorney/client communications to the extent it is practical. Lawyers also
are reminded that e-mail records may be discoverable, including the records of time
and date of transmission and recipients. This information thus should be included in
the lawyer's decision as to whether or not confidential information should be
communicated via e-mail.
9. May lawyers place on-line intake forms for prospective clients on their web sites and, if so, may the client respond via the web site?
Probably. Placing the forms on the web site, for clients to download and complete
off-line is ethically permissible because: 1) there is no unethical solicitation involved;
and 2) there is no communication of confidential information through cyberspace. As
noted above, prospective clients should be cautioned to avoid possible inadvertent
disclosures of confidential information, and thus prospective clients should not be able
to send the completed form electronically.
10. Do lawyers need to submit a copy of their web sites to the State Bar and the Supreme Court pursuant to ER 7.3?
Probably not. Web sites probably will not fall within the requirements of ER 7.3,
which requires lawyers to submit a copy of all direct mail solicitation letters to the
State Bar and the Supreme Court. Lawyers only need to send copies of direct mail
correspondence to the Bar and the Court when the solicitation is sent to a prospective
client who has a known need for legal services for a particular matter. Presumably
web sites are designed to provide general information about a law firm and are not
sent directly to certain prospective clients and thus do not need to follow ER 7.3.
11. Do lawyers need to keep a copy of their web sites and any changes that they make to their web sites pursuant to ER 7.1(o)?
Yes. Lawyers need to keep a copy of their web sites in some retrievable format for three years after dissemination along with a record of when and where the web site was used. Additionally, if there is a material substantive change to the web site, the lawyer should retain a copy of all material changes as well.
Formal Opinions of the Committee on the Rules of Professional Conduct are advisory in nature only and are not binding in any disciplinary or other legal proceedings. © State Bar of Arizona 1997